In convention, begun at the city of Detroit, on the second Monday of May, in the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty five:
We, the PEOPLE of the territory of Michigan, as established by the Act of Congress of the Eleventh day of January, in the year one thousand eight hundred and five, in conformity to the fifth article of the ordinance providing for the government of the territory of the United States, North West of the River Ohio, believing that the time has arrived when our present political condition ought to cease, and the right of self-government be asserted; and availing ourselves of that provision of the aforesaid ordinance of the congress of the United States of the thirteenth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and the acts of congress passed in accordance therewith, which entitle us to admission into the Union, upon a condition which has been fulfilled, do, by our delegates in convention assembled, mutually agree to form ourselves into a free and independent state, by the style and title of "The State of Michigan," and do ordain and establish the following constitution for the government of the same.
BILL OF RIGHTS
First. All political power is inherent in the people.
Right of the people.
2. Government is instituted for the protection, security, and benefit of the people; and they have the right at all times to alter or reform the same, and to abolish one form of government and establish another, whenever the public good requires it.
No exclusive privileges.
3. No man or set of men are entitled to exclusive or separate privileges.
4. Every person has a right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of his own conscience; and no person can of right be compelled to attend, erect, or support, against his will, any place of religious worship, or pay any tithes, taxes or other rates, for the support of any minister of the gospel or teacher of religion.
Support of religious societies; by state treasury prohibited
5. No money shall be drawn from the treasury for the benefit of religious societies, or theological or religious seminaries.
Rights of conscience.
6. The civil and religious rights, privileges and capacities of no individual shall be diminished or enlarged on account of his opinions or belief concerning matters of religion.
Freedom of speech and press.
7. Every person may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that right; and no law shall be passed to restrain or abridge the liberty of speech or of the press. In all prosecutions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact.
Search and seizure.
8. The person, houses, papers and possessions of every individual shall be secure from unreasonable searches and seizures; and no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or things, shall issue without describing them, nor without probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation.
Trial by jury.
9. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.
Criminal prosecution; rights of accused.
10. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the vicinage; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor; to have the assistance of counsel for his defense, and in all civil cases, in which personal liberty may be involved, the trial by jury shall not be refused.
Same; prerequisite of presentment or indictment, exceptions.
11. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense, unless on the presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases of impeachment, or in cases cognizable by justices of the peace, or arising in the army or militia when in actual service in the time of war or public danger.
Twice in jeopardy, bail, habeas corpus.
12. No person for the same offense, shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment. All persons shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses, when the proof is evident or the presumption great; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.
Right to bear arms.
13. Every person has a right to bear arms for the defense of himself and the state.
Military subordinate to civil power.
14. The military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.
Quartering of troops.
15. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner prescribed by law.
16. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.
Attainder, ex post facto, impairment of contract.
17. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall be passed.
Excessive bail, fines, punishments.
18. Excessive bail shall not be required; excessive fines shall not be imposed; and cruel and unjust punishments shall not be inflicted.
Taking property for public use; compensation.
19. The property of no person shall be taken for public use, without just compensation therefor.
Right to assemble and petition.
20. The people shall have the right freely to assemble together, to consult for the common good, to instruct their representatives, and to petition the legislature for redress of grievances.
21. All acts of the legislature contrary to this or any other article of this Constitution shall be void.